One of the worlds oldest known alcoholic beverages. Beer was brewed
as early as 4000 years ago in ancient Egypt and Babylon. According
to Egyptian legend, Osiris, the god of agriculture, taught humans
to prepare beer. It has been a commercial product since the late middle
ages. Today beer is legally defined in some countries, as in Germany,
where the standard ingredients, apart from water, are germinated barley,
hops, and yeast.
Concise Timeline of Beer History
By Prof. Linda Raley, Texas Tech University
Historians speculate that prehistoric nomads may have made beer
from grain & water before learning to make bread.
Beer became ingrained in the culture of civilizations with no
Noah's provisions included beer on the Ark.
4300 BC, Babylonian clay tablets detail recipes for beer.
Beer was a vital part of civilization and the Babylonian, Assyrian,
Egyptian, Hebrew, Chinese, and Inca cultures.
Babylonians produced beer in large quantities with around 20
Beer at this time was so valued that it was sometimes used to
pay workers as part of their daily wages.
Early cultures often drank beer through straws to avoid grain
hulls left in the beverage.
Egyptians brewed beer commercially for use by royalty served
in gold goblets, medical purposes, and as a necessity to be included
in burial provisions for the journey to the hereafter.
Different grains were used in different cultures:
a) Africa used millet, maize and cassava.
b) North America used persimmon although agave was used in Mexico.
c) South America used corn although sweet potatoes were used
d) Japan used rice to make sake.
e) China used wheat to make samshu.
f) Other Asian cultures used sorghum.
g) Russians used rye to make quass or kvass.
h) Egyptians used barley and may have cultivated it strictly
for brewing as it made poor bread.
1600 BC Egyptian texts contain 100 medical prescriptions
calling for beer. If an Egyptian gentleman offered a lady a sip
of his beer they were betrothed. Early brewers used herbals like
balsam, hay, dandelion, mint, and wormwood seeds, horehound juice,
and even crab claws & oyster shells for flavorings. Romans brewed
"cerevisia" (Ceres the goddess of agriculture & vis
meaning strength in Latin).
55 BC Roman legions introduce beer to Northern Europe.
49 BC Caesar toasted his troops after crossing the Rubicon,
which began the Roman Civil War. Before the Middle Ages brewing
was left to women to make since it was considered a food as well
as celebration drink.
23 BC Chinese brewed beer called "kiu"
500-1000 AD the first half of the Middle Ages, brewing begins
to be practiced in Europe, shifting from family tradition to centralized
production in monasteries and convents (hospitality for traveling
pilgrims). During Medieval times beer was used for tithing, trading,
payment and taxing.
1000 AD hops begins to be used in the brewing process.
1200 AD beer making is firmly established as a commercial
enterprise in Germany, Austria, and England.
a) German's preferred cold temperature lagers (bottom-fermentation)
stored in caves in the Alps.
b) English preferred mild temperature ales (top-fermentation)
stored in cellars.
1295 King Wenceslas grants Pilsen Bohemia brewing rights
(formerly Czechoslovakia, now Slovakia & Czech Republic).
1420 German brewers develop the lager method of brewing.
1489 Germany's first brewing guild, Brauerei Beck, was established.
1490's Columbus found Indians making beer from corn and
black birch sap.
1516 Bavarian brewing guilds push for the Reinheitsgeobot
purity laws make it illegal to use any ingredients but water, barley,
and hops in the brewing of beer (they didn't know yeast existed).
1553 Beck's Brewery founded & still brewing today.
Late 1500's Queen Elizabeth I of England drank strong ale
1587 the first beer brewed in New World at Sir Walter Raleigh's
colony in Virginia--but the colonists sent requests to England for
1602 Dr. Alexander Nowell discovers that ale can be stored
longer in cork sealed, glass bottles.
1612 the first commercial brewery opened in New Amsterdam
(NYC, Manhattan) after colonists advertised in London newspapers
for experienced brewers.
1620 Pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock because the beer supplies
were running low.
1674 Harvard College has its own brewhouse.
1680 William Penn (founder of Pennsylvania) operated commercial
1757 Washington wrote his personal recipe "To Make
1786 Molson brewery is founded in what is today Canada.
George Washington and Thomas Jefferson had their own private brewhouses.
Samuel Adams operated commercial brewery. Soldiers in the revolutionary
army received rations of a quart of beer a day.
1789 James Madison proposes that Congress levy a low 8-cent
duty per barrel on malt liquors to encourage "the manufacture
of beer in every State in the Union." Beer and bread were the
mainstays of the ordinary person's diet for centuries. Yeasts during
this time were exactly the same as those used in bread.
Before the 1800's most beer was really "Ale."
1810 Munich establishes Oktoberfest as an official celebration.
1830's Bavarians Gabriel Sedlmayr of Munich and Anton Dreher
of Vienna developed the lager method of beer production.
1842 the first golden lager is produced in Pilsen, Bohemia.
In the mid-19th Century (1850's) German immigrant brewers introduced
cold maturation lagers to the US (Anheuser-Busch, Miller, Coors,
Stroh, Schlitz, and Pabst roots begin here). The modern era of brewing
in the US began in the late 1800's with commercial refrigeration
(1860), automatic bottling, pasteurization (1876), and railroad
1870's Adolphus Busch pioneers the use of double-walled
railcars, a network of icehouses to make Budweiser the first national
1876 Pasteur unraveled the secrets of yeast in the fermentation
process, and he also developed pasteurization to stabilize beers
22 years before the process was applied to milk.
1880 there are approximately 2,300 breweries in the US.
1890s Pabst is the first US brewer to sell over 1 million
barrels in a year.
1909 Teddy Roosevelt brought over 500 gal. of beer on safari
1914 commercial competition drives the number of operating
breweries down to 1,400.
1933 Prohibition ends for beer (April 7).
1935 only 160 breweries survive Prohibition.
1935 the beer can is introduced (American Can Co. &
1938 Elise Miller John heads Miller Brewing for 8 years
as the first and only woman ever to run a major brewing company.
1965 Fritz Maytag purchases Anchor Brewing Co.
1966 Budweiser is the first brand to sell 10 million barrels
in a year.
1976 New Albion is the first in the rebirth of brewpubs
and microbreweries in the US opening in California.
1988 Asahi Super Dry (Japan) introduces new beer category
(soon to follow is Michelob Dry).
1991 the US produces 20% of the world beer volume (world's